## What are Functions in Excel?

Functions in Excel are predefined formulas that perform specific calculations or operations on data. Here are the key points about Excel functions:

## Basic Concept

Excel functions are preset formulas that help perform mathematical, statistical, and logical operations. They allow you to quickly and easily perform complex calculations that would be time-consuming to do manually.

## Structure

- Functions start with an equal sign (=) followed by the function name and parentheses containing the arguments

## What are types of Functions exist in Excel?

- Mathematical functions (e.g., SUM, PRODUCT)
- Statistical functions (e.g., AVERAGE, STDEV)
- Logical functions (e.g., IF, AND, OR)
- Text functions (e.g., CONCATENATE, LEFT, RIGHT)
- Date and time functions (e.g., NOW, DATE, YEAR)
- Lookup and reference functions (e.g., VLOOKUP, INDEX, MATCH)

## Using Functions

To use a function:

- Select the cell where you want the result
- Type = followed by the function name
- Enter the arguments in parentheses
- Press Enter to calculate the result

Functions are a powerful feature of Excel that can significantly enhance your data analysis and calculation capabilities.

**A Comprehensive List of Functions by Category**

### Math and Trigonometry Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

SUM | Adds up a range of cells or numbers |

AVERAGE | Calculates the average (arithmetic mean) of a range of numbers |

COUNT | Counts the number of cells that contain numbers |

MAX | Returns the largest value in a set of numbers |

MIN | Returns the smallest value in a set of numbers |

PRODUCT | Multiplies all the numbers given as arguments |

POWER | Raises a number to a specified power |

SQRT | Calculates the square root of a number |

ABS | Returns the absolute value of a number |

ROUND | Rounds a number to a specified number of digits |

ROUNDUP | Rounds a number up to a specified number of digits |

ROUNDDOWN | Rounds a number down to a specified number of digits |

INT | Rounds a number down to the nearest integer |

CEILING | Rounds a number up to the nearest multiple of significance |

FLOOR | Rounds a number down to the nearest multiple of significance |

MOD | Returns the remainder after a number is divided by a divisor |

RAND | Generates a random number between 0 and 1 |

RANDBETWEEN | Generates a random integer between two specified numbers |

PI | Returns the value of pi (3.14159…) |

SIN | Returns the sine of an angle |

COS | Returns the cosine of an angle |

TAN | Returns the tangent of an angle |

DEGREES | Converts radians to degrees |

RADIANS | Converts degrees to radians |

### Statistical Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

MEDIAN | Returns the median (middle value) of a set of numbers |

MODE | Returns the most frequently occurring value in a range |

STDEV | Calculates the standard deviation of a sample |

VAR | Calculates the variance of a sample |

LARGE | Returns the k-th largest value in a dataset |

SMALL | Returns the k-th smallest value in a dataset |

PERCENTILE | Returns the k-th percentile of a range of data |

QUARTILE | Returns the specified quartile of a dataset |

RANK | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

CORREL | Calculates the correlation coefficient between two datasets |

FORECAST | Predicts a future value based on existing values |

### Logical Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

IF | Performs a logical test and returns one value for TRUE, another for FALSE |

AND | Returns TRUE if all arguments are TRUE, FALSE otherwise |

OR | Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE, FALSE otherwise |

NOT | Reverses the logical value of its argument |

XOR | Returns TRUE if an odd number of arguments are TRUE, FALSE otherwise |

IFERROR | Returns a specified value if a formula evaluates to an error, otherwise returns the formula’s result |

IFS | Checks multiple conditions and returns a value corresponding to the first TRUE condition |

SWITCH | Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value |

### Text Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

LEN | Returns the number of characters in a text string |

LEFT | Returns a specified number of characters from the start of a text string |

RIGHT | Returns a specified number of characters from the end of a text string |

MID | Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at a specified position |

CONCATENATE | Joins two or more text strings into one string |

TEXTJOIN | Combines text from multiple ranges with a specified delimiter |

TRIM | Removes all spaces from text except for single spaces between words |

UPPER | Converts text to uppercase |

LOWER | Converts text to lowercase |

PROPER | Capitalizes the first letter of each word in a text string |

SUBSTITUTE | Replaces old text with new text in a string |

FIND | Finds one text string within another (case-sensitive) |

SEARCH | Finds one text string within another (not case-sensitive) |

### Date and Time Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

TODAY | Returns the current date |

NOW | Returns the current date and time |

YEAR | Returns the year of a date value |

MONTH | Returns the month of a date value |

DAY | Returns the day of a date value |

WEEKDAY | Returns the day of the week for a date value |

WORKDAY | Returns a date that is a specified number of workdays before or after a given date |

NETWORKDAYS | Returns the number of whole working days between two dates |

DATEDIF | Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates |

EDATE | Returns a date that is a specified number of months before or after a start date |

EOMONTH | Returns the last day of the month, a specified number of months before or after a start date |

### Lookup and Reference Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

VLOOKUP | Looks up a value in the first column of a table and returns a value in the same row from a specified column |

HLOOKUP | Looks up a value in the top row of a table and returns a value in the same column from a specified row |

INDEX | Returns a value or reference of the cell at the intersection of a particular row and column in a range |

MATCH | Searches for a specified item in a range of cells and returns its relative position |

OFFSET | Returns a reference to a range that is offset from a given cell or range by a specified number of rows and columns |

INDIRECT | Returns the reference specified by a text string |

ADDRESS | Creates a cell reference as text, given row and column numbers |

ROW | Returns the row number of a reference |

COLUMN | Returns the column number of a reference |

### Financial Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

PV | Calculates the present value of an investment |

FV | Calculates the future value of an investment |

PMT | Calculates the payment for a loan based on constant payments and a constant interest rate |

RATE | Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity |

NPER | Returns the number of periods for an investment |

NPV | Calculates the net present value of an investment using a discount rate and a series of future payments and income |

IRR | Calculates the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows |

XIRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

XNPV | Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

SLN | Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period |

DB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed-declining balance method |

### Information Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

ISBLANK | Returns TRUE if the referenced cell is empty |

ISERR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A |

ISERROR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value |

ISEVEN | Returns TRUE if the number is even |

ISODD | Returns TRUE if the number is odd |

ISTEXT | Returns TRUE if the value is text |

ISNUMBER | Returns TRUE if the value is a number |

ISNA | Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value |

ISREF | Returns TRUE if the value is a reference |

TYPE | Returns a number indicating the data type of a value |

### Web Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

ENCODEURL | Returns a URL-encoded string |

WEBSERVICE | Retrieves data from a web service |

FILTERXML | Returns specific data from XML content using an XPath expression |

### Database Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

DSUM | Adds the numbers in a field of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify |

DCOUNT | Counts the cells containing numbers in a field of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify |

DMAX | Returns the largest number in a field of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify |

DMIN | Returns the smallest number in a field of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify |

DAVERAGE | Averages the values in a field of records in a list or database that match conditions you specify |

### Engineering Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

BIN2DEC | Converts a binary number to decimal |

DEC2BIN | Converts a decimal number to binary |

HEX2DEC | Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal |

DEC2HEX | Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal |

OCT2DEC | Converts an octal number to decimal |

DEC2OCT | Converts a decimal number to octal |

### Cube Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

CUBEKPIMEMBER | Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) property and displays the KPI name in the cell |

CUBEMEMBER | Returns a member or tuple from the cube |

CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY | Returns the value of a member property from the cube |

CUBERANKEDMEMBER | Returns the nth ranked member in a set |

CUBESET | Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server |

### Array Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

TRANSPOSE | Returns a vertical range of cells as a horizontal range, or vice versa |

MMULT | Returns the matrix product of two arrays |

MUNIT | Returns the unit matrix for the specified dimension |

### Compatibility Functions

Function | Description |
---|---|

BETADIST | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function |

BETAINV | Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function |

BINOMDIST | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability |

CHIDIST | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHIINV | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHITEST | Returns the test for independence |

FDIST | Returns the F probability distribution |

FINV | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution |

FTEST | Returns the result of an F-test |

GAMMADIST | Returns the gamma distribution |

GAMMAINV | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution |

GAMMALN | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function |

HYPGEOMDIST | Returns the hypergeometric distribution |

LOGINV | Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution |

LOGNORMDIST | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution |

NEGBINOMDIST | Returns the negative binomial distribution |

NORMDIST | Returns the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMINV | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSDIST | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSINV | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution |

PERCENTRANK | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a dataset |

POISSON | Returns the Poisson distribution |

RANK | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

STDEV | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample |

STDEVP | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population |

TDIST | Returns the Student’s t-distribution |

TINV | Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution |

TTEST | Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test |

VAR | Estimates variance based on a sample |

VARP | Calculates variance based on the entire population |

WEIBULL | Returns the Weibull distribution |

ZTEST | Returns the two-tailed P-value of a z-test |